New Lab Matters: The ABCs of PFAS

New Lab Matters: The ABCs of PFAS | www.APHLblog.org

First discovered in the 1930s, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) now pervade almost every aspect of modern life. In fact, PFAS compounds are found in everything from dental floss to cookware. But human exposure to PFAS comes at a cost, and as old compounds are removed from production, new compounds take their place. So how does a public health laboratory handle this challenge with limited resources? As our feature article shows, by establishing new public-private partnerships.

Here are just a few of this issue’s highlights:

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New Lab Matters: Time to welcome the next generation of public health laboratory scientists

New Lab Matters: Time to welcome the next generation of public health laboratory scientists | www.APHLblog.org

The Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates that 12,000 new laboratory professionals are needed each year to meet consumer demand. At the same time, while automation has eliminated some less-skilled laboratory jobs, the growing sophistication of public health laboratory analyses has generated demand for scientists with highly specialized training. As our feature article shows, laboratories are recruiting new talent for the “hidden profession” by taking a hard look into what they really want, and how they want to work.

Here are just a few of this issue’s highlights:

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Partnerships Help Save Lives When Disaster Strikes

Emergency responders gathered in a circle.

Public health emergencies occur every day across the United States. Tornadoes, hurricanes, wildfires, floods, infectious disease outbreaks, terrorist attacks, and other emergencies have all occurred within the past few years and likely will happen again. Communities must be ready in the event of a public health emergency – both those they expect and those that come without warning.

Since 2002, CDC’s Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) program has provided funding and guidance to 50 states, four cities, and eight territorial health departments across the nation to protect communities. Planning and exercising plans help ensure that health departments are ready to respond and save lives when emergencies occur.

While we all hope that emergencies never happen, they are inevitable and the true test of any preparedness system. The following stories are examples of how CDC’s PHEP program works with states and local communities to ensure they are ready to respond to any emergency. Some of CDC’s partners include health departments, community organizations, national public health organizations, and private companies.

Restoring California Communities after Devastating Wildfires

A fire truck responds to a brush fire.In 2017, nearly 9,000 fires, almost double the average annual number, burned 1.2 million acres in California. The fires destroyed more than 10,800 structures and killed at least 46 people. However, thanks to years of planning for such events and building a public health infrastructure through the PHEP program, state and local health departments were ready to respond immediately and help their communities recover over the following months.

Through partnerships and support provided by the PHEP program in and around Sonoma County, local officials evacuated more than 1,160 patients from area hospitals and many other healthcare facilities. Additionally, because of the relationship the state built with the California National Guard through the PHEP program, more than 100 volunteer troops cleaned the Sonoma Developmental Center in one day. More than 200 patients with disabilities were then able to return safely to the facility.

Ensuring Access to Medication during an Influenza Outbreak in Maine

Package of Oseltamivir (i.e., Tamiflu) capsulesIn March 2017, an influenza outbreak on Vinylhaven, a remote island off the coast of Maine with a population of about 1,165, sickened half of the island’s residents. The outbreak depleted the medical center’s Tamiflu® supply. Tamiflu® can greatly lessen the severity of influenza but it must be taken early in treatment.

Because of a partnership agreement established under PHEP with the Northern New England Poison Center, local pharmacies, and other organizations, and the Maine Department of Health staff quickly delivered 100 treatment courses of Tamiflu®. As a result, the state successfully reduced the impact of the influenza outbreak on the island.

Responding to a Water Contamination Incident in Illinois

Bottles of water on a conveyor belt.On May 2017, a water main break under a river contaminated water in Cumberland County, Illinois, and left some residents without water entirely. Health department staff funded through PHEP established water distribution sites with bottled water donated by private partners such as Walmart, Coca-Cola, and Anheuser-Busch. Staff also went door-to-door to check on residents and distribute materials about safe water.

The PHEP program ensures public health emergency management systems and experts are ready to respond when emergencies occur. Preparedness efforts throughout the years have saved lives and helped communities return to normal operations as quickly as possible.

From natural disasters to infectious diseases, the PHEP program protects America’s health, safety, and security to save lives. Check out the PHEP Stories from the Field to find out more about how the PHEP program has helped communities prepare for, respond to, and recover from public health emergencies.

A Little Girl and a Deadly Virus

A Little Girl and a Deadly Virus | www.APHLblog.org

By Linette Granen, director, Marketing & Membership, APHL

This story begins as many others. A young lady met a young man, got married and had a baby, whom they adored. They were children of immigrants — her family was from Germany and his from Italy. They began their lives together in the early part of the 20th century in New Orleans, Louisiana. He worked for the New Orleans Park Service — he always had a green thumb and immensely enjoyed working outdoors — while she settled down as a housewife, raising a variety of animals on their small property. One room of their shotgun-house was devoted to a small flock of canaries, and outside they had a plethora of chickens, geese, rabbits and guinea pigs. They shared their double shotgun-house with her brother, a chief in the New Orleans Fire Department. In 1916 they had a baby girl.

A Little Girl and a Deadly Virus | www.APHLblog.orgYes, they were happy — until October 1918, when their only child, nearly three years old, got very sick. She had influenza, although at the time they didn’t know what was wrong. This disease spread quickly through New Orleans, and it became suddenly clear that it was spiraling out of control. On October 7, just one week before the young girl’s untimely death, the New Orleans Board of Health made this then-unknown illness a mandatory reportable disease in order to understand the impact on their population and to track the epidemic’s progress. Two days later, at the recommendation of health officials, the mayor closed all schools, churches, theaters, movie houses and anywhere else people might congregate. Quickly, additional actions were taken to prevent crowding and gathering in the hopes of slowing or stopping the epidemic.

As was mandated, case reports of influenza began to flood the New Orleans Board of Health. On October 12 and 13 alone, there were 4,875 cases reported in the city. At that point, the US Surgeon General instructed the health department to secure additional hospital space for ill military personnel from nearby military installations. Within days, 17 wards of the city’s Charity Hospital were totally dedicated to influenza care. The newly appointed medical advisor, Dr. Gustave Corput, began working with the Red Cross to convert another facility, the Sophie Gumbel building on the Touro-Shakespeare almshouse property, into a 300-bed emergency hospital. At that time, the health department did not employ nurses, so the Red Cross began recruiting nurses and physicians for the emergency facility — some volunteering time and some working part-time. Through funding from the Red Cross and the Public Health Service, the facility was opened and maintained, along with smaller facilities at the Southern Yacht Club on Lake Pontchartrain and a Knights of Columbus hall across the river.

The little girl died on October 15, 1918.

By the end of October, two weeks after the little girl’s death, Tulane University scientists developed and produced a vaccine for local use against a bacteria called Bacillus influenzae (now known as Haemophilus influenzae). Despite being untested, deploying this type of vaccine was worth any risks because of the large number of cases in a city desperate for relief. Laboratories at local hospitals began manufacturing the Tulane vaccine and more than 4,000 city government employees and factory workers were immunized. Medical and nursing students were deployed all over the state: third-year nursing students staffed the emergency hospitals and fourth-year Tulane medical students were appointed as assistant US Public Health Service surgeons. Later that month, it appeared that the tide was beginning to turn, perhaps due to the actions taken by the health department and the Tulane vaccine.

By the spring, the devastating epidemic in New Orleans was finally declared over. Between October 1918 and April 1919, the city experienced over 54,000 cases of influenza and almost 3,500 deaths. The case-fatality rate was 6.5%; only Pittsburgh and Philadelphia had higher death rates.

This story is very personal to me. Not only am I a career public health scientist from New Orleans, that little girl who died on October 15, 1918 was my aunt, Gladys Mary Cucinello. Her parents – my grandparents – later had four sons, one of whom was my father who recently passed away at the age of 95. Born in 1922, he was not alive for the epidemic and never met his sister, but he remembered the heartache my grandmother expressed whenever she talked about that time. The only picture of my Aunt Gladys lives in a place of honor in my house. Such a tiny girl was no match for such a deadly virus.

 

*Much of the historical information about New Orleans during the 1918 influenza pandemic came from the Influenza Encyclopedia.

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3 Reasons Why Handwashing Should Matter to You

Unseen woman washing her hands with soap in a sink.

Most of us are familiar with the parental-like voice in the back of our minds that helps guide our decision-making—asking us questions like, “Have you called your grandmother lately?” For many that voice serves as a gentle, yet constant reminder to wash our hands.

Handwashing with soap and water is one of the most important steps you can take to avoid getting sick and spreading germs to loved ones. Many diseases are spread by not cleaning your hands properly after touching contaminated objects or surfaces. And although not all germs are bad, illness can occur when harmful germs enter our bodies through the eyes, nose, and mouth. That’s why it is critical to wash hands at key times, such as after a flood or during a flu pandemic, when germs can be passed from person to person and make others sick.

Washing hands with soap and water is the best way to reduce the number of germs on them, however during a disaster clean, running water may not be available. If soap and water are not available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers can quickly reduce the number of germs on hands in some situations, but sanitizers do not eliminate all types of germs.

Here are three key reasons why you should always care about handwashing:Your hands carry germs you can't see. Wash your hands.

  1. Handwashing can keep children healthy and in school. Handwashing education can reduce the number of young children who get sick and help prevent school absenteeism.
  2. Handwashing can help prevent illness. Getting a yearly flu vaccine is the most important action you can take to protect yourself from flu. Besides getting a flu vaccine, CDC recommends everyday preventive actions including frequent handwashing with soap and water.
  3. Handwashing is easy! Effective handwashing is a practical skill that you can easily learn, teach to others, and practice every day to prepare for an emergency. It takes around 20 seconds, and can be done in five simple steps:
    1. Wet your hands with clean, running water, turn off the tap, and apply soap
    2. Lather your hands by rubbing them together with the soap
    3. Scrub your hands for at least 20 seconds. Need a timer? Hum the “Happy Birthday” song from beginning to end twice
    4. Rinse your hands well under clean, running water
    5. Dry your hands using a clean towel or air-dry them

Promote Handwashing in Your Community

Global Handwashing Day is celebrated annually on October 15 to promote handwashing with soap as an easy and affordable way to prevent disease in communities around the world. This year’s theme, “Clean Hands—A Recipe for Health,” calls attention to the importance of handwashing at key times, such as before eating or feeding others, and before, during, and after preparing food.

Learn how you can get involved and promote handwashing at home, your child’s school or daycare, and your local community:

Protecting Our Future: Emergency Preparedness and Children’s Mental Health

Sad boy sitting against a brick wall with his face hidden

Among the many lessons learned during the 2017 Hurricane season, we recognized that addressing children’s mental and behavioral health needs is a major concern in hurricane-affected areas.

CDC’s At Risk Task Force (ARTF) was established in 2017 to ensure identification and prioritization of the mental and physical health needs of at-risk populations, including children. ARTF’s first Emergency Operations Center (EOC) activation was on Aug. 31, 2017, in response to Hurricane Harvey, the first of three consecutive hurricanes to hit the United States and its territories in a five-week period. ARTF’s mission was to address the needs of at-risk populations in affected areas throughout the response and recovery phases.

Early in the response, it became clear that the emotional impact of the storms and the mental health needs of people, particularly children, affected were a critical area of focus. ARTF worked closely with federal and non-government agencies to address these needs so that children and families had the best chance for recovery.

October 10 is World Mental Health Day. The theme this year is Young People and Mental Health in a Changing World. In light of this, we want to share our experiences to inform mental health interventions and improve outcomes for children after public health emergencies and natural disasters. First, let’s talk about what makes children more vulnerable in emergencies.

Why are children more vulnerable in emergencies?

Mental stress from a disaster can be harder on children. Children are more vulnerable in emergencies: Because they breathe in more air for their size than adults, children absorb harmful materials from the air more readily. Because they spend more time outside, are lower to the ground, and put their hands in their mouths more often than do adults. Because they may not be able to communicate their symptoms or feelings. Because they need medicines, and specifically designed equipment for emergency situations that are different from adults.Children are more vulnerable in emergencies because of their physical, developmental, behavioral, and emotional differences from adults. Children may have difficulty or may not be able to communicate symptoms or feelings. They may understand less about the situation and feel less able to control the events around them.

The aftermath of an emergency or disaster is also difficult for children because they have less experience coping with difficult situations.

The emotional impact of an emergency depends on a child’s characteristics and experiences, the social and economic circumstances of the family and their community, and the availability of local resources. Other factors may influence the emotional impact on children, causing them to be more vulnerable in emergencies. These include children with mental, behavioral, or developmental disorders. Children who have experienced trauma in the past may also have more difficulty coping with a disaster.  

What does the At Risk Task Force do for children’s mental health during a hurricane response?

During the 2017 hurricane season, the ARTF collaborated with federal and non-government partners to monitor behavioral health in affected areas and disseminate key messages and coping resources for children in schools and vulnerable populations in other contexts. ARTF coordinated a webinar for primary care physicians that focused on identification of common adjustment difficulties in children, provided strategies to promote effective coping skills in children and their parents, and explained the importance of self-care for professionals. The webinar was attended by more than 300 clinicians and other health care providers on Oct 26, 2017.

Public health professionals also play an important role in addressing short-term and enduring mental health needs of the population. Timely and accurate mental and behavioral health surveillance data, that includes specific information on children, could inform intervention efforts to improve developmental outcomes for children in the longer-term aftermath of disasters. It is important that mental health surveillance be incorporated into preparedness planning so that surveillance systems can be established or leveraged immediately when emergency response begins.

What are next steps for CDC?

Children’s mental health needs are a prominent concern in hurricane-Recommendations to help children cope during and after an emergency: • Share age-appropriate information • Encourage children to ask questions • Limit media exposure • Return to a routine • Reunite children with caregivers as soon as possibleaffected areas. There is still a gap in real-time information on mental health needs to inform intervention efforts and improve child outcomes. CDC is working internally to enhance efforts to monitor health impacts during and after natural disasters, including integrating mental health into standard data collection.

CDC is also working with partners to integrate children’s mental health in preparedness planning. Following the 2017 hurricane season, CDC collaborated with the American Academy of Pediatrics to develop an activity book for children and families, Coping after a Disaster, that focuses on feelings children might have after a disaster and coping strategies that may help. This book is part of a series that follows Ready Wrigley, a dog who helps her family prepare for emergencies and their impacts.

CDC is now partnering with the National Hazard Center to develop mental and behavioral health training modules for researchers conducting field research immediately following an extreme event, such as a hurricane. These free, online trainings will provide background information on mental health in the context of disasters, as well as a list of mental health assessment tools used following a disaster for various vulnerable populations (e.g., children, older adults). The trainings and associated resources will address current research gaps in mental health, help to organize research in this area, and share best practices with researchers.

On Sept. 12, 2018, CDC activated the EOC to respond to Hurricane Florence, which made landfall off the coast of North Carolina on Sept. 13. The ARTF was quickly activated to address the needs of vulnerable populations. As the storm decreased in intensity, North Carolina began reporting increased emergency department visits related to stress and anxiety. Mental health concerns in children, similar to 2017, are expected to remain a prominent focus throughout the response and recovery phases. The ARTF continues to monitor the situation and support the mental and behavioral health needs of children and vulnerable populations in affected areas.

Additional Resources:

Personal Protective Actions You Can Take in a Flu Pandemic

Young woman under the covers in bed blowing her nose.

Every fall and winter the United States experiences epidemics of seasonal influenza (flu). Sometimes a flu pandemic occurs due to a new flu virus that spreads and causes illnesses around the world. We cannot predict when a flu pandemic will occur, but over the past 100 years, we have documented four flu pandemics resulting in close to 1 million deaths in the United States alone. 1Get a flu vaccine! The most important way to prevent the flu in everyone 6 months and older is to get a yearly flu vaccine.

When a flu pandemic happens, it can take up to 6 months before a vaccine against a new flu virus is available. Antiviral drugs can help manage the symptoms of the flu, shorten the time you are sick by 1 or 2 days, and prevent serious flu complications, like pneumonia. But, there may be a limited supply of these medications during a pandemic so nonpharmaceutical interventions (or NPIs) may be the only prevention tools available during the early stages of a pandemic.

There are things you can do, apart from getting vaccinated and taking medications, to help slow the spread of a flu pandemic. NPIs, also known as “community mitigation measures,” are important because they will be the first line of defense in the absence of a pandemic vaccine. NPIs may be more effective when used early and in a layered approach (i.e., using more than one measure at a time). During the 1918 pandemic, cities that put NPIs in place quickly reported fewer deaths.2,3 NPIs may be used in different settings, including homes, schools, workplaces, and places where people gather (e.g., parks, theaters, and sports arenas).

Personal protective measures to prevent flu at all times

Photo of someone washing their hands in a sink.CDC recommends using some NPIs to prevent seasonal flu and other respiratory infections. To help prevent the flu, you should always:

  • Stay home when sick and away from others as much as possible,
  • Stay away from people who are sick as much as possible,
  • Cover your coughs and sneezes with a tissue,
  • Wash your hands often with soap and water,
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose, or mouth, and
  • Regularly clean surfaces and objects that you use a lot.

Personal protective measures to prevent flu during a pandemic

Many of these NPIs would still be recommended during a pandemic, but some would be reserved for use during a flu pandemic. Depending on the severity of a pandemic, CDC might recommend:

  • Stay home if exposed to a sick household member,
  • Use a face mask when sick and out in crowded community settings, and
  • Implement community measures to reduce exposure to pandemic flu (coordinating school closures, limiting face-to-face contact in workplaces, and postponing or canceling mass gatherings).

CDC is preparing for a flu pandemic

There is always a threat that a flu pandemic will arise, so CDC is taking steps to prepare. In 2017, CDC issued updated community mitigation guidelines to help state and local public health departments and their community partners make plans before the next pandemic happens. Visit www.cdc.gov/npi to access the updated guidelines; plain-language planning guides for the general public and community settings; and additional NPI communication, education, and training materials. You can find more information about seasonal and pandemic flu at www.cdc.gov/flu and at www.cdc.gov/flu/pandemic.

Footnotes:

1 Past Pandemics: https://www.cdc.gov/flu/pandemic-resources/basics/past-pandemics.html

2 Hatchett RJ, Mecher CE, Lipsitch M. Public health interventions and epidemic intensity during the 1918 influenza pandemic. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007; 104:7582-7.

3 Markel H, Lipman HB, Navarro JA, et al. Nonpharmaceutical interventions implemented by US cities during the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic. JAMA. 2007; 298:644-54.

The Power of Preparedness: Prepare Your Health

Group of people kneeling around a CPR dummy.

The devastating hurricanes of 2017 reminded us how important it is to prepare for disasters. These potentially life-threatening situations have real impacts on personal and public health. During Hurricane Irma, existing medical conditions and power outages increased the likelihood of death. Being prepared with supplies and an Emergency Action Plan can help you protect the health of your family until help arrives.

September is National Preparedness Month (#NatlPrep), and the perfect time of year to remind people of The Power of Preparedness. This year’s call-to-action of Prepare Your Health (#PrepYourHealth) and four weekly themes highlight the roles that individuals, state and local public health, and CDC play in creating community health resilience. It takes everyone “pulling in the same direction” to create families, communities, and a nation that can withstand, adapt to, and recover from personal and public health emergencies.

The first week focuses on personal preparedness, and the importance of nonperishable food, safe water, basic supplies, and the personal items you need to protect your health until help arrives.

Personal needs

A large-scale disaster or unexpected emergency can limit your access to food, safe water, and medical supplies for days or weeks. However, nearly half of adults in the U.S. do not have an emergency kit for their home; they don’t have the provisions, supplies, and equipment necessary to protect the health of their families in a disaster. This list will get you started:

  • Special foods—such as nutrition drinks—for people with dietary restrictions, food sensitivities and allergies, and medical conditions such as diabetes.
  • Prescription eyeglasses, contacts and lens solution
  • Medical alert identification bracelet or necklace
  • Change of clothes
  • Emergency tools (e.g., manual can opener; multi-use tool; plastic sheeting; etc.)
  • Durable medical equipment (e.g., walkers; nebulizers; glucose meters; etc.)
  • Medical supplies, including first aid kit
  • Pet supplies
  • Baby and childcare supplies

Prescriptions

The hands of an elderly man holding a pill organizer

Many people need daily medications and medical equipment. Nearly half of Americans take at least one prescription drug, and a quarter of Americans take three or more medications. A large-scale natural disaster, like a hurricane, could make it difficult to get prescription and over-the-counter medicines.  You and your family may need to rely on a prepared emergency supply. There are some basics to include:

  • A 7 to 10 day supply of prescription medications stored in a waterproof container.
  • An up-to-date list of all prescription medications, including dosage and the names of their generic equivalents, medical supply needs, and known allergies.
  • Over-the-counter medications, including pain and fever relievers, diuretics, antihistamines, and antidiarrheal medications stored in labeled, childproof containers.
  • A cooler and chemical ice packs for storing and keeping medicines cold in a power outage.

Paperwork

Over half of Americans do not have copies of important personal paperwork. Collect and protect documents such as insurance forms, and medical, vital, and immunization records. Here are some of the basics:

  • Health insurance and prescription cards
  • Shot records
  • Living wills and power of attorney forms
  • Vital records (e.g., birth and death certificates; adoption records)
  • User manuals, model and serial numbers, and contact information for the manufacturer of medical devices (e.g., blood glucose meters; nebulizers)
  • Hardcopies of your Emergency Action Plan

Power sources

A portable generator sitting outside in the snow.

A power outage can close pharmacies, disrupt medical services, and can be life threatening for over 2.5 million people who rely on electricity-dependent medical equipment. Be ready for a lengthy blackout with an emergency power plan and back up. You will need alternative power sources for your cellphone, refrigerator , and medical equipment. Here’s a checklist:

  • Extra batteries, including those for hearing aids, in standards sizes (e.g., AA and AAA)
  • Fully-charged rechargeable batteries for motorized scooters
  • Hand-crank radio with USB ports
  • Car chargers for electronic devices, including cell phones and breast pumps
  • A generator

Practical skills

Finally, it’s important to know some basic do-it-yourself skills to stay healthy and safe until help arrives. Here are the basics to get you started:

  • Call 911 in a life-threatening emergency
  • Get trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). If you do not know CPR, you can give hands-only CPR—uninterrupted chest compressions of 100 to 120 a minute—until help arrives.
  • Learn how to use an automated external defibrillator (AED).
  • Learn Handwashing is one of the best ways to protect yourself, your family, and others from getting sick.

The good news is that it is never too late to prepare for a public health emergency. You can take actions, make healthy choices, and download free resources to help you prepare for, adapt to, and cope with adversity.

Kentucky Takes a Novel Approach to Fight the Opioid Crisis

A pile of prescription medicine bottles.

The opioid overdose epidemic is a public health emergency. The state of Kentucky has the third highest rate of drug overdose in the country. The FindHelpNowKY.org website bridges a gap between Kentucky residents and timely access to substance use treatment facilities and services. It provides near real-time available openings at local area substance use disorder (SUD) facilities.

Tailoring treatment optionsUsing an innovative approach. Kentucky teens will take the lead in advertising FindHelpNowKY.org. Using federal funding, the team is running a challenge for high school students to produce campaign advertisements to promote the website and raise awareness about the risks of drug use. The top student-produced print, broadcast, billboard, and radio ads will be incorporated into the "Don't Let Them Die--Find Help Now KY" campaign.

You can use over 30 different search criteria on the website to find the right SUD treatment facility for your needs. These criteria include accepted insurance, gender identity, facility type (inpatient and outpatient treatment facilities etc.), and co-occurring treatment for mental health disorders. Over 500 SUD treatment facilities appear on the website who update their opening availability daily to facilitate rapid matching of individual treatment need with available treatment. The easy to use design of the FindHelpNowKY.org landing page helps high-priority populations, like adolescents and pregnant women, find treatment options and availability.

Providing FindHelpNowKY.org to Those in Need

FindHelpNowKY.org is running a promotional campaign during the summer of 2018 to:

  1. Raise awareness of the site as a valuable resource to quickly locate SUD treatment facilities with available openings. TV spots, radio ads, billboards, and digital media ads will run to reach primary audiences.
  2. Drive website traffic and use by:
    1. family and friends of individuals with SUDs, and individuals with SUDs (primary audiences); and
    2. health care providers including primary care providers and first responders (secondary audiences). The website is being promoted at physician association meetings, and physician pocket cards with SUD resources, including FindHelpNowKY.org will be distributed
  3. Inform the public about SUD educational information available on FindHelpNowKYorg.

Measuring progress

Kentucky assessed the need for the FindHelpNowKy.org website based on a physician focus group, Office of Drug Control Policy (ODCP) input, and community mental health centers’ feedback. These stakeholders helped identify the need for this website and the need for more timely access to SUD treatment. Metrics to measure success will include website analytics, surveys of SUD treatment providers, and average search time

FindHelpNowKY.org has had over 100,000 page views and over 26,000 unique searches from February 1, 2018- August 7, 2018.. Approximately 40% of website visits originated from social media, google searches, and referrals from other websites. Most users spent an average of 7.5 minutes on the website, suggesting that they were reading and engaged with the content. Visitors also ran 2-3 searches during their visits, indicating that they conducted unique searches based on differing search criteria.

Common searches also included seeking long-term residential or outpatient treatment facilities that accept Medicaid or Medicare. The FindHelpNow domain is being obtained by Kentucky so that interested states can use the FindHelpNow website platform with their respective state facility data in it.

Learn more

  • If you or a loved one requires assistance or information on SUD treatment and prevention topics contact the statewide hotline number 1-833-8KY-HELP
  • Kentucky Drug Overdose Prevention Program (http://www.mc.uky.edu/kiprc/programs/kdopp.html)
  • Don’t Let Them Die, The Governor of Kentucky’s communication campaign that seeks to raise awareness of the dangers of opioid use

We want to hear from you!

Leave a comment below about what your state is doing to combat the opioid overdose epidemic. This was developed by the Kentucky Drug Overdose Prevention Program at the Kentucky Injury Prevention and Research Center, at the University of Kentucky’s College of Public Health as bona fide agent for the Kentucky Department for Public Health. The project was a collaboration between the office of Kentucky Governor Matt Bevin, Kentucky Cabinet for Health and Family Services, and Justice and Public Safety Cabinet.

Funding for the website came from the CDC National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. FindHelpNowKY.org was supported by Cooperative Agreement Number, 5 NU17CE002732-03, funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or the Department of Health and Human Services.

Arizona’s ERIC Program Works to Improve Access to Emergency Information

Emergency Response Interpreters Credentialing (ERIC) program interpreter, Beth Kovatch, works with the Operations Section of the Southwest Incident Management Team 1 on the Tinder Fire to record an accessible video updating the public on the the status of the wildfire.

Vicki Bond is not surprised at how hot, but at how cold the temperatures can get out on a wildfire. “I’ve worked on responses to more wildfires in freezing temperatures than in extreme heat,” she says.

Coincidentally, making sure people aren’t left out in the cold in an emergency is why she has so much experience with the weather.

Bond works for the Arizona Department of Emergency and Military Affairs (DEMA) as a licensed American Sign Language (ASL) interpreter and deployment coordinator for the Emergency Response Interpreters Credentialing (ERIC) program. She helps prepare licensed ASL interpreters and Communication Access Realtime Translation (CART) captioners to deploy for emergencies throughout the state.

ERIC interpreters and captioners work alongside communicators to interpret and transcribe information presented at community meetings and media briefings, on websites and social media, and in evacuation shelters for people who are deaf and hard of hearing.

“The goal of the ERIC program,” said Bond, “is to ensure deaf and hard of hearing community members have access to critical information during emergencies and disasters in the State of Arizona.”

People in Arizona are at risk from a variety of hazards, including extreme heat, floods, and wildfire. More than 1,500 wildfires occur in Arizona each year.

Trial by Fire

Group photo of participants in the Emergency Response Interpreters Credentialing Program
The ERIC team is made up of American Sign Language Interpreters, Certified Deaf Interpreters, and Communication Access Real-time Translation captioners.

The pilot of the ERIC program was a literal trial by fire. In 2017, ERIC interpreters and CART providers deployed in response to one flood and nine wildfires, where long hours, limited supplies, and sleeping in tents are the rule, not the exception.

The ERIC staff of five captioners, 15 interpreters, and three certified deaf interpreters deployed to two major fires this season–the Tinder Fire and the Rattlesnake Fire in April—and, most recently, supported Coconino County’s response to flooding east of the City of Flagstaff.

ERIC staff have not worked with a public health department on an exercise or real-life emergency, such as a Point of Distribution (or POD) drill or activation as of yet, but Bond anticipates “many more” deployments with the recent enactment of State of Arizona Senate Bill 1296, which is meant to improve the accessbility of emergency communication.

Bond hopes the early success of the ERIC progam will help highlight the need for ASL translators and CART captioners on all emergencies.

Know Your Community

It is not a matter of if you will need an interpreter and captioner, but when you will need them. In Arizona, an estimated 1.1 million people are hard of hearing, and over 20,000 people are culturally deaf and use ASL as their primary language.

Public health and emergency management agencies can use tools like Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) surveys to assess local health and communication needs, and collect data that can help emergency planners know when to request resources like interpreters and captioners. The earlier the better in most cases.

Think Accessibility

In today’s “digital first” world, where half of visitors to CDC.gov come on mobile devices first, it is important to think about accessibility throughout the process of creating content, from conceptualization to publication.

Small print, videos without captions, and the use of long and technical language in printed materials and on websites are barriers to communication and possible violations of federal and state laws. Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act and other laws like it help protect people who have disabilities that affect their ability to hear, speak, read, write, and understand information.

Here are 5 ways to create web and social media content that is useful, usable, and accessible:

  1. Add alternate text (or AltText) to images.
  2. Caption social media video and web video.
  3. Provide transcripts for videos and podcasts, and interpreters for livestreams.
  4. Improve the readability of print materials with large text.
  5. Write in plain language to increase understanding of your message.

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