What you need to know about harmful algal blooms

What you need to know about harmful algal blooms | www.APHLblog.org

By Julianne Murphy, intern, Environmental Health

Warm weather brings nature walks, picnics and sunny days by the shore, but it can also bring unwanted changes to your favorite beach. As the temperature rises, lake and ocean waters can turn from blue to mossy green as algae proliferates in unsightly and potentially harmful algal blooms.

What are harmful algal blooms?

Algae are plant-like organisms of one or more cells that use sunlight to make food. Together they can form colonies called algal blooms in both marine and freshwater systems. Some of these algal blooms are hazardous to health, but not all algal blooms are harmful.

Harmful algal blooms may release toxins at concentrations unsafe to humans and animals and may drastically reduce oxygen available to aquatic life. In fresh water bodies, cyanobacteria, aka “blue-green algae,” can produce dangerous cyanotoxins; in saltwater or brackish water, acid-generating plankton – dinoflagellates and diatoms – can pose a health threat.

Should I be concerned about algal blooms?

Algal blooms can pose a risk for human and animal health. People and animals can become ill through eating, drinking, breathing or having direct skin contact with harmful algal blooms and their toxins. Illnesses vary based on the exposure, toxins and toxin levels. Public health and environmental laboratories test samples from harmful algal blooms to confirm the presence and level of toxicity. Remember, not all algal blooms are harmful.

How are public health officials responding to the increase in algal bloom events?

As climate change events amplify conditions favorable to algal blooms, public health scientists are studying when and where associated illnesses are occurring and how to mitigate the effects of exposure. Their efforts have led to increased laboratory testing and electronic surveillance measures at the state and federal level.

For example, public health and environmental officials in Alaska have been tracking and testing harmful algal blooms. The Alaska Harmful Algal Bloom Network, a collaboration of the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS) and regional monitoring programs, analyzes fish kills, unusual animal behaviors and other related phenomenon to provide early warning of developing coastal marine blooms. DHSS scientists analyze human specimens for illnesses associated with harmful algal blooms, such as paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) caused by saxitoxins. PSP is a potentially fatal poisoning with no treatment except supportive care. Samples from symptomatic patients are forwarded to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for confirmatory testing as needed. Testing of asymptomatic individuals may be included in future studies.

In addition, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) laboratories test marine shellfish meat samples protect public health and safety as well as for regulatory purposes, illness investigations and non-commercial shellfish upon request. This monitoring literally saves lives.

David Verbrugge, chief chemist at the DHSS Division of Public Health, explains the value of Alaska’s testing of harmful algal blooms, “[Laboratory analysis] helps us to understand the nature of PSP exposures: frequency of occurrence, confirmation when lacking meals to test, and the presence or absence of toxins in asymptomatic co-exposed groups. It also allows us to let people know what they are eating before they eat it.”

Is the CDC involved in testing and surveillance for harmful algal blooms?

Yes, only for freshwater. In 2016, CDC created the One Health Harmful Algal Bloom System to provide a voluntary, electronic reporting system for states, federal agencies and their partners. Using the system, which integrates human, animal and environmental health data using a One Health approach, public health departments and their environmental and animal health partners can report bloom events, and human and animal cases of associated illness. Members of the public may report a bloom event or a case of human or animal illness to the One Health system by contacting their local or state health department.

What is the outlook for future testing and surveillance of harmful algal blooms?

As climatic conditions become more favorable to development of harmful algal blooms, state and local health departments will have to ramp up surveillance and testing to protect public health and to preserve local revenue from beaches. These actions will come with a price tag, requiring action at all levels of government. Resources can be leveraged through collaboration to research and expand clinical testing capacity for these persistent health threats.

Learn More:

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Hurricane preparation and response resource list

Hurricane preparation and response resource list | www.APHLblog.org

Updated September 15, 2017

In the wake of hurricanes Harvey and Irma, public health laboratories in affected regions will be busy testing for potential environmental contamination, monitoring for increased water- and mosquito-borne diseases, or repairing damage to their own facilities. APHL has activated its Incident Command System (ICS) to support member laboratories with their response. The ICS team is participating in CDC’s Emergency Operations Center (EOC) State/Local and Partner Conference Calls, and will assist member labs with their response, facilitate communications between CDC and member labs, and share lab needs/stories with policy makers and the public.

Below are helpful resources for those communities hit by the recent storms. Many of these resources are useful for any severe weather event, not just Hurricanes Harvey and Irma.

Preparing for and weathering the storm

Hurricanes, Preparation and Response, EPA
Hurricane Preparedness Checklist, FDA
Preparing for a Hurricane or Tropical Storm, CDC
Flooding Toolkit, National Public Health Information Coalition
Disaster Assistance.gov, US government platform for locating disaster-related resources
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Toll-free FEMA hotline for survivors of Hurricane Harvey: 1-800-621-FEMA

Keeping your family and community healthy after the storm

Food Safety:
Food Safety Tips for Areas Affected by Hurricane Irma, USDA press release
Protect Food and Water Before, During and After a Storm, FDA

Infectious Diseases:
Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC
Vector-borne Diseases, CDC​​​​​​​
Waterborne Disease Prevention, CDC

Drinking Water:
Drinking Water Safety and Testing Information for Texas, Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (accredited labs for microbial testing of drinking water, advice for customers of public water systems, disinfecting your well, etc.)
Drinking Water Testing and Information for Houston, TX, City of Houston
Private Wells: What to Do after the Flood, EPA
Private Wells: Water-related Diseases and Contaminants, CDC
Health Department Laboratory, Drinking Water Testing and Information, City of Houston

Other:
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning – Clinical Guidance, CDC
Mold: Cleanup and Remediation, CDC
Mold: Flood Cleanup, EPA
Waste Management, EPA

Rebuilding and repair

Cleanup after a Hurricane, CDC
Status of Systems in Areas Affected by Harvey, Texas Commission on Environmental Quality – drinking water, waste water and sewage, residential wells, flood waters, water infrastructure

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New Lab Matters: Sharing the value of public health laboratories

New Lab Matters: Sharing the value of public health laboratories | www.APHLblog.org

The need for a laboratory voice in budgetary discussions has become more urgent recently, and “human-to-human relationships” are as critical as technical knowledge. So how does a public health laboratory raise its profile within the community? By telling a good story…over and over again.

In the summer issue of Lab Matters, our feature article examines how laboratories are sharing their value, one interview, photo or outreach moment at a time.

Here are just a few of this issue’s highlights:

Subscribe and get Lab Matters delivered to your inbox, or read Lab Matters on your mobile device.

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Lab Culture Ep. 5: My Niece’s Positive Newborn Screen

My Niece's Positive Newborn Screen | www.APHLblog.org

My Niece's Positive Newborn Screen | www.APHLblog.orgFour years ago, as APHL joined with partners to celebrate the 50th anniversary of routine newborn screening in the United States, newborn screening hit more closely for APHL staff than it ever had before. Michelle Forman, manager of media and Lab Culture host, received a text that her new niece, Sloane, had a positive newborn screen. Her results were out of range for PKU. In this episode, Michelle interviews Sloane’s mom, Judith Forman, about that experience.

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Laboratory twinning builds strong lab systems and relationships

Laboratory twinning builds strong lab systems and relationships | www.APHLblog.org

By David Mills, PhD, retired director, Scientific Laboratory Division, New Mexico Department of Health

When I first got involved in twinning, I had no idea that Halloween costumes would be part of the process. Let me explain.

During my time as director of the New Mexico public health laboratory, APHL connected my team with an equivalent lab in Paraguay. This entailed sending personnel to train their laboratorians, who later came to Albuquerque to see our work in action. Our “twin” labs developed strong bonds and this “twinning” project left a good taste in everyone’s mouth.

A year later, when APHL asked if we’d help Uganda’s Central Public Health Laboratory evolve into a national reference lab, we jumped at the chance to twin again.

Our first step was to visit Uganda to learn about their priorities and see what was truly achievable. We had an instant rapport with the Ugandan team and their director, Steven Aisu, and our discussion quickly reinforced how well matched our labs were. Our team had just moved from an old, cramped facility to a state of the art facility, just as the Ugandan team needed to do.

Because Aisu’s team was developing a new paradigm without ever seeing the process in action, our task was to help them clearly visualize the goal and then make it a reality through technical assistance, management and leadership training. We were all excited to get started.

The second step was for Sally Liska, retired director of the San Francisco public health lab, and me to hold training sessions in Kampala, the capital of Uganda. I loved doing these interactive courses because, for me, teaching is the best way to learn.

The Ugandan team was eager to know everything about how we ran our biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) lab, so the third step was for the Ugandan team to visit our facility in New Mexico. They met with experts from epidemiology to IT, quality assurance to maintenance, as well as senior officials. They were especially interested in how we worked with agricultural and environmental partners; Aisu described such collaborations as akin to bridging chasms. We shared our hard-won experiences. His team quickly gained proficiency in physical and scientific quality systems.

Just as important, we built strong relationships that will last.

I invited the team to my home for their last night in New Mexico before their return flight to Uganda. It happened to be Halloween, but we had been so busy it hadn’t come up in conversation. When the first trick-or-treaters arrived, I suddenly realized that my friends had never experienced the holiday. They were surprised and enchanted to find witches, ghosts and other costumed children at the door. It’s a good thing they were delighted—150 creatures of the night rang our bell over the next few hours! The following morning, we said farewell, but not goodbye.

I retired in 2015, but my connection to the Uganda team has continued without breaking stride. In June 2016, I went to Kampala for two weeks to help them develop strategic plans for their national health lab system and for oversight and regulation of the country’s entire health system. On my team were APHL consultants Kim Lewis and John Pfister, who has retired from the Wisconsin state lab.

A month later, we three musketeers facilitated a stakeholders’ meeting to review those plans and helped refine the strategic plan for their new facility (built by CDC) as they prepared for the September 2016 grand opening.

The New Mexico team has continued working with the Ugandan team as they transitioned into their new roles, and I have jumped in with both feet as a consultant through APHL. If they can stand my jokes, the least I can do is help them take their next steps. It’s my calling.

A Little Extra Fun…

This story isn’t directly related to my work with the laboratory, but I love telling it! While we were in Uganda, we stayed in a small hotel where the friendly manager would often come and chat. One day, she asked, “Have you ever had an avocado before?” I said, “Yes, I make guacamole with avocados.” She’d never heard of guacamole, so I described it and she grimaced, saying, “That sounds terrible!” I offered to make some anyway.

Laboratory twinning builds strong lab systems and relationships | www.APHLblog.org

Two days later, I had a night off from teaching and was sitting in the lobby when the manager came up to me and said, “We’re ready! Let’s make the guacamole. The whole kitchen staff is waiting!” Sure enough, a chef with a tall white hat and his crew were lined up behind the ingredients: avocados, lemon juice, garlic, onions. I was astonished and eager to get cooking!

Together, we made a huge batch for the hotel staff and served it on fried corn tortillas. Everyone was game to try it. Although first their reactions were uniformly polite yet skeptical, they eventually grew enthusiastic.

My conclusion: Guacamole is an acquired taste.

 

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Public health labs aren’t just on the frontlines of vaccine-preventable outbreaks. They’re often the only line.

Public health labs aren’t just on the frontlines of vaccine-preventable outbreaks. They’re often the only line. | www.APHLblog.org

by Kim Krisberg

In the U.S., rates of vaccine-preventable diseases are so low that many commercial labs don’t even have the ability to test for them anymore. The shift reflects the hard work of decades-long immunization efforts. But it also means that when there is a vaccine-preventable outbreak, just about all of our rapid diagnostic capacity resides in one place: the public health lab.

The latest example of this is in Minnesota, where a measles outbreak hit 78 confirmed cases as of June 16. The state is typically home to less than a handful of measles cases each year — most years, the case count is between zero and two. At the Minnesota Department of Health’s Public Health Laboratory, which is the only lab in the state that can do real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) testing for measles, staff have received more than 800 specimens for measles testing since April, with a goal of fully processing each one the same day it’s received. To stop an outbreak, both speed and accuracy are critical.

Fortunately, Minnesota lab workers are trained and ready to provide both. But sustaining that kind of surge capacity over the long run and in the face of new and emerging disease threats is always challenging — even in the best funding environments.

“We’ve spent a lot of time increasing our capacity over the last 10 years and we’re seeing that capacity being put to work,” said Sara Vetter, PhD, manager for infectious diseases at the Minnesota Public Health Laboratory. Vetter noted that Minnesota last experienced a measles outbreak in 2011 — “and that one seemed huge and it was just 26 cases of measles.”

This year’s measles outbreak is almost entirely concentrated in a Somali community in Minnesota’s Hennepin County, home to more than 1 million residents. The outbreak officially began on April 10, the same day the lab confirmed the first positive case. Nearly all the cases are among unvaccinated children younger than 4 years old. No deaths have occurred, though about a quarter of infections have led to hospitalization.

Inside the public health lab’s Virology/Immunology Unit, technicians track the measles outbreak using a rRT-PCR test, which allows them to detect the highly contagious virus much quicker than private labs that can perform serological testing for measles antibodies. That quickness is key, said Anna Strain, PhD, supervisor of the Virology/Immunology Unit, because it means the health agency’s epidemiology team can then quickly locate people who may have been infected and get ahead of the outbreak before it spreads.

The rRT-PCR test may be quicker than serological testing — it detects measles RNA, as opposed to measles antibodies, and is less confounding than serology — but it’s not completely definitive, Strain said. After conducting rRT-PCR testing on each of the more than 800 specimens that come into the lab, any positive specimens undergo genotyping to determine if the patient is infected with a wild-type measles strain or if the rRT-PCR is simply picking up on the live attenuated virus that’s contained in the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine. Genotyping can also determine if the case is related to the larger outbreak. (On a side note: In addition to its regular testing responsibilities, the Minnesota Public Health Lab is partnering with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Canadian public health officials to develop a PCR test that’s specific to the vaccine strain of measles. Such an test would be particularly helpful in an outbreak, Strain said, because technicians could then forgo the extra step of genotyping.)

“It’s actually meant quite a lot of maneuvering,” Strain said, referring to the logistics of responding to the surge in measles testing. “In some ways, we were lucky that it happened in April when flu season was dying down — otherwise a number of testing staff trained for measles testing would have also been doing flu testing. If the (measles outbreak) had happened any sooner, it would have been really hard to keep up.”

From start to finish, the measles test takes about five hours, Strain said. Lab staff can process 10 measles specimens at a time and up to 30 specimens in day — though that’s a stretch, she noted. In comparison, the lab can process up to 150 flu samples in day and often does.

“As hard as it’s been in the lab, it’s been even harder for our epidemiologists — they’ve had more than 7,000 contacts to trace and to follow up on,” said Joanne Bartkus, PhD, director of the Minnesota Public Health Laboratory. “It’s been daunting for all of us.”

Vetter said that most of the lab’s current surge and response capacity is thanks to federal public health preparedness funding as well as funding from CDC’s Epidemiology and Laboratory Capacity for Infectious Diseases (ELC) Program, both of which currently sit on the budgetary chopping block. On preparedness, President Trump’s fiscal year 2018 budget proposal calls for cutting CDC’s emergency preparedness budget by $136 million — that’s on top of years of preparedness cuts public health agencies have already absorbed. (In total, Trump’s budget calls for cutting CDC’s budget by $1.2 billion, or a whopping 17 percent.) The ELC, on the other hand, is wholly entwined with the Affordable Care Act’s Prevention and Public Health Fund, which allocates $40 million in annual ELC funds to state and local health departments in every state. Under current ACA repeal-and-replace bills in Congress, the Prevention and Public Health Fund would disappear.

And while ELC and preparedness monies don’t categorically support the Minnesota lab’s vaccine-preventable disease work, Vetter said the funds have been essential in ensuring the lab can quickly scale up its response, regardless of whether the emergency is vaccine-preventable or not. In other words, the Minnesota lab has spent years building an all-hazards response system that readies it to face any health threat that lands at its doorstep. Being able to sustain that nimbleness, however, would be at risk if funding declined.

“Without that funding, we’d probably have to choose what we respond to because we’d run out of people and out of machines — we just couldn’t keep up,” Vetter said. “If our funding gets cut, we can’t maintain our machines, we can’t replace machines, we can’t train more people … what we do is very complex.”

At the same time the Minnesota Virology/Immunology Unit has been responding to the measles outbreak, it’s also been responding to a mumps outbreak on the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities campus, providing surge testing for a mumps outbreak in Washington state that recently hit nearly 900 cases, and taking in and testing about 20 specimens a week for Zika virus. All of that is in addition to its more regular duties, like rabies and West Nile monitoring.

In the wake of the measles outbreak, Minnesota Health Commissioner Edward Ehlinger, MD, MSPH, called on state policymakers to create and support a public health response contingency fund. Such a bill was introduced into the Minnesota House of Representatives for consideration in May.

“Our commissioner always says that data are the coins of public health,” Bartkus said. “And it’s the public health lab that creates that data.”

As of late May, Strain said the Minnesota measles outbreak — which exceeded total U.S. cases for all of 2016 — seemed to be entering a “tapering phase.” As she said that, however, she paused — and quickly added “we all just knocked on wood.”

 

For more on the Minnesota measles outbreak, visit www.health.state.mn.us/divs/idepc/diseases/measles.

 

 

 

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Farewell, Providence! APHL Annual Meeting — Days 3 and 4

Farewell, Providence! APHL Annual Meeting — Days 3 and 4 | www.APHLblog.org

After four days of fascinating speakers, networking with peers and partners from around the world, and enjoying public health jokes that only insiders would understand, the 2017 APHL Annual Meeting came to a close. It was the largest meeting yet with over 700 attendees. We are so thankful to the APHL staff, members, partners, exhibitors and speakers who made this meeting a success! See you all in Pasadena, California in 2018!

Below is a round-up of days 3 and 4.

Day 1 round-up

Day 2 round-up

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APHL Annual Meeting — Day 2

APHL Annual Meeting — Day 2 | www.APHLblog.org

It was another great day at the APHL Annual Meeting! From cholera to opioids to storytelling, the day was packed full of fascinating presentations from experts. Follow #APHL on Twitter and Instagram to join the conversation!

Day 1 round-up

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UberOps CEO talks public health in the cloud

UberOps CEO talks public health in the cloud | www.APHLblog.org

In a very short time, Americans have become increasingly familiar with the cloud. Not the white fluffy ones in the sky, but the cloud where much of our day-to-day computing takes place. Even for people who aren’t familiar with the term, they likely are familiar with the concept of accessing internet-based files from anywhere. Photos taken on your smartphone might be automatically uploaded to a cloud-based storage system where you can view or download those photos on your laptop. Just as this technology has become valuable in our daily lives, it has become valuable in public health.

At this year’s APHL Annual Meeting, Eduardo Gonzalez Loumiet, CEO of UberOps, presented on public health in the cloud. We asked Eddie a few questions about the system that he has worked to develop along with APHL informatics and the value that this platform offers public health laboratories and ultimately the American public.

Learn more about AIMS — AIMS Platform: Outpacing Pathogens from the Cloud

In simple terms, what is the AIMS platform? What is the role of UberOps?

AIMS stands for the APHL Informatics Messaging Services Platform. AIMS was developed in 2008 as part of the Public Health Laboratory Interoperability Project (PHLIP) focused on influenza surveillance with the CDC.

AIMS is a secure, cloud based environment that accelerates the implementation of health messaging by providing shared services to aid in the transport, validation, translation and routing of electronic data.

The AIMS Platform has grown to a community of more than 85 trading partners involved in several use cases including ELR, Whole Genome Sequencing, ARLN and NMI. New use cases are being discovered every day.

UberOps is an APHL partner that develops and supports the AIMS Platform. We work on the deep technical aspects of AIMS. Our focus is on continuously securing the environment, trading partner onboarding, and ensuring trading partners have the information and tools to leverage AIMS Platform benefits.

Why should public health labs use a cloud-based system? What are the benefits? 

The benefits of using cloud computing have surpassed perceived risks. AIMS utilizes Amazon Web Services (AWS), the industry leader in Cloud computing. The benefits of cloud computing include:

  1. Security, high availability and reliability
  2. Centralized processing and message routing
  3. Real-time monitoring and audit systems
  4. Reduced message transport complexity
  5. Reduced data translation and transformation complexity
  6. Reduced development and support costs
  7. Flexible capacity infrastructure
  8. FISMA Moderate compliant applications
  9. FedRAMP compliant environment via the cloud provider
  10. Commitment to innovation and the future

Are public health laboratories the only labs using AIMS?

UberOps CEO talks public health in the cloud | www.APHLblog.org

AIMS was built to serve public health laboratories. Over the last 18-24 months the AIMS infrastructure has expanded capability to allow public health agencies and a select group of private laboratories to securely exchange data as well. We have also seen an increase in cross-jurisdictional ELR data exchange between agencies. AIMS has also been used to host other non-profit data, such as STEVE 2.0, which focuses on exchanging birth and death records between states. And AIMS is being used to process data for the first time in the cloud through virtual workstations for the whole genome sequencing project. We are excited for the emerging possibilities!

Is it secure? How do I know my information wont be stolen or misused?

The top priority for APHL and UberOps is a secure and compliant AIMS Platform. Stringent healthcare laws and regulations across jurisdictions are monitored on a regular basis, and revisited on a regular basis. The AIMS Platform is FISMA Moderate compliant, which requires a once per year third-party audit. In addition to the audit, the AIMS infrastructure is required to pass firewall penetration testing.

Each member of the AIMS Platform team attends yearly HIPAA privacy and security training. The AIMS dedicated security team uses advanced, real-time monitoring tools to proactively eliminate potential threats.

What does this mean for the public? Are there clear benefits for people in the community?

AIMS is an extension of everything our public labs represent in the United States. The ability to monitor and detect health threats quickly using a shared technology platform is an invaluable asset for the safety of all citizens. Preventing and/or predicting large expected (like influenza) and unexpected (like Zika) public health events is where the AIMS Platform serves our communities.

What does the future hold for AIMS?

APHL, UberOps and AIMS stakeholders are constantly looking to expand the functionality of the AIMS infrastructure. As the evolution of health data continues, we see new opportunities to assist with integrating data and providing a higher quality experience for trading partners, patients and citizens.

Our recent platform growth between public and private collaboration will continue, and we expect to expand AIMS application services (examples: Dashboards, Portals, LIMS), electronic case reporting and much more!

 

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AIMS Platform: Outpacing Pathogens from the Cloud

AIMS Platform: Outpacing Pathogens from the Cloud | www.APHLblog.org

By Rachel Shepherd, associate specialist, Informatics, APHL

​​In a kindergarten classroom in Des Moines, a small boy begins to shiver uncontrollably. In a nursing home in Phoenix, a pneumonic grandmother fights for her life from a hospital bed. On a crowded metro car in Washington, DC, in the miniscule droplets of saliva from a man’s kind “Hello” to a stranger, it attacks. The flu. It comes every year as the months begin to shift into winter, returning slightly different than before, exploding and thriving, determined to wreak havoc. It descends upon the nation, preys upon us in our most vulnerable moments, and says, “This is my  year.”

In public health, every emerging threat—the flu, E. coli, Legionnaires’ disease, Ebola, Zika—is a race against time. What can scientists learn from these deadly pathogens, and more importantly, how fast? Lives depend on this data, on laboratories’ ability to track patterns, decipher mutations and to share, compare and build upon those findings—crowdsourcing at its finest and most critical.

Only a few years ago, a lab would manually enter its test results and fax them to CDC and other reference centers. Someone would receive the paper transmission and manually re-enter it. The process would take days. In that time, an outbreak could have spread. Lives could have been lost.

Time matters. But thanks to an APHL-CDC initiative, what used to take days can now take minutes. In 2008, public health labs recognized the need to share their data electronically. APHL worked hand in hand with informatics specialists at state labs and CDC to develop what was then known as the Route not Read (RnR) hub. This seemingly simple, but powerful approach sent public health data through a service that read the outside envelope of the electronic message and delivered it to the intended recipient without opening its contents.

Four years later, the increasing complexity and demands for public health data led to the development of the AIMS platform. Now in a cloud-based environment, AIMS has burgeoned over the years. The new environment accelerates the transmission of data and provides shared services, such as message validation translation, to labs and trading partners. Today, more than 85 organizations and institutions exchange data over AIMS, with more than 25 million messages transported to date.

The vital data exchanged on AIMS includes aggregated influenza test results from public health laboratories to CDC, vaccine-preventable disease reports, biological threat data, immunization data exchange among several public health jurisdictions, electronic laboratory reporting between hospitals and their jurisdictions, and whole genome sequencing through the Advanced Molecular Detection initiative. And AIMS is expanding again to offer electronic case reporting to connect laboratories and health agencies with CDC and with other data recipients nationwide.

Since its launch in 2012, the AIMS platform has equipped public health officials to monitor and respond rapidly to health threats, strengthened labs with shared resources and expedited delivery of time-sensitive health information to consumers. As the platform continues to gain traction, its contributions to the nation’s health infrastructure will be tremendous.

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